Where sugar cane grows people have historically chewed on the stalks or pressed the stalks to release the juices. These people did not suffer enormous incidents of tooth decay, diabetes or obesity when eating this unprocessed form of sugar. The differences in these forms of sugar is in how they are processed and purified from sugar cane.
So first, how is regular table sugar derived from sugar cane? Here is a short, (1:52 minutes) video of the processing steps involved in making white, crystalline sugar.
Evaporated cane juice is processed in exactly the same way as table sugar except that the step that occurs between 1:31 and 1:39 minutes in the video is omitted. So there is only one more purification step added to make white table sugar than to make evaporated cane juice. The crystallization process can be added to make the evaporated cane juice a solid like white table sugar or it can be added to a food product as a liquid. So evaporated cane juice just like table sugar is a highly refined, purified substance.